The McGraw-Hill Handbook of English Grammar and Usage Project Gutenberg's The Grammar of English Grammars, by Gould Brown This eBook is for the. Looking for an easy-to-use guide to English grammar? . Our goal in this book is to help you learn about English grammar in as simple and. Whether your skills need drastic improvement or a quick brush-up, The McGraw- Hill Handbook of English Grammar and Usage will get your.
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This books (McGraw-Hill Education Handbook of English Grammar Usage [PDF] ) Made by LESTER About Books none To Download Please. The Handbook of Good English: Revised and Updated. Copyright © . Grammar and usage are therefore touchy subjects, like class distinctions—they are. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Mark Lester is an experienced grammarian, ESL expert, and professor emeritus at Eastern Washington University. He is the.
Complex sentences are good containers to use when we need to show the backgrounding and foregrounding of elements that do not bear equal importance. Sentence structure selections occur in the drafting and revision stages of the writing process, as the writer searches for the clearest, most efficient way to express thoughts. Many writers have an intuitive sense of what kinds of containers work best with what kinds of ideas. Indeed, there is much to be said for using one of the many versions of graphic organizers along with sentence structure templates.
The writer can then look at a branch diagram or a cluster, decide how the ideas are related, and then consider an array of syntactical containers to suit them.
In fact, we already make intuitive grammatical choices as we compose our thoughts.
Those intuitive choices may or may not be the best ones for the purpose. By building awareness of sentence and textual structure, we can increase our chances that our message is clear, efficient, and graceful. Myth 3: Grammar is boring. There are many ways to make our classrooms boring.
We can fail to make any connection between grammar and journalism, grammar and advertising, grammar and novels, grammar and drama, grammar and music, grammar and poetry. These are ways to make grammar boring.
The sonneteer works within a strictly prescribed structure, choosing that structure because it is the best container for particular ideas. The sonnet form is not constraining but liberating: The format frees the writer from decisions about rhythm and rhyme scheme.
Because of the structure, half the work is done. Why would learning any kind of writing, much less creative writing, be detached from the fundamentals? Knowledge of structure is not a hindrance, but a guide that enables, rather than impedes, creativity. We picture fill-in-the-blank workbooktype questions in which there is one right answer. The book that you have in your hands is an extremely useful, in fact indispensable, tool for the teaching of language. However, any grammar text is most effective when used along with, not in place of, literature and student writing.
It might seem that students would naturally make the crossover from what they learn in grammar exercises to their own language use, but such is not necessarily the case. As teachers, we have to make that crossover happen very deliberately, pointing out structures that students have learned and how those structures are used to make meaning in authentic contexts.
Thus does grammar instruction transcend the practice exercises that illustrate targeted concepts. Everybody loves language; children and teenagers love it especially, because they are in the process of defining their own culture by laying claim to words and expressions all their own.
When we invite students to analyze their own neologisms, grammatical idiosyncrasies, and dialectical styles, we enliven grammar lessons immeasurably. Another way to make grammar instruction interesting is to let students discover how language changes right before our eyes.
Movies and novels set in various pockets of the English-speaking world are museums of linguistic anthropology. Analyze the language of a movie set in New Orleans and compare it to the language of a movie set in Los Angeles.
There are many ways to make our classrooms interesting. Our love of the subject is contagious. Contrary to myth, a good grammar lesson can invite a lively discussion about ambiguities in meaning and the best way to express thought in a particular context.
It can even ignite a discussion about social power structures, prejudices, and immigration. This is not boring stuff. Myth 4: Grammar applies only to English classes. Every teacher wants students to be better readers. A law student told me recently that she was glad that she knew something about grammar, because she needed it to read complex materials in her courses. She found that by mentally pulling out the subject and verb, she could follow the lines of technical text.
Needless to say, grammatical knowledge of the English language is essential for learning another language. What about science, math, social studies, the arts? All teachers love words. The biology teacher is fussy about the difference between osmosis and diffusion. Getting students to make fine distinctions is an important part of teaching students to think like scientists. Teachers want to give away the words of their subject areas the way grandmothers want to give away food.
We want to invite our students into the professional conversation of our subject areas. T eachers want to give away the words of their subject areas the way grandmothers want to give away food. As English teachers, we love words about words, language about language. To us, there is a vast difference between an action verb and a linking verb, a predicate nominative and a direct object, a transitive verb and an intransitive verb.
In teaching students to talk the talk, we turn them into licensed operators, not just amateurs. A licensed operator can make the machinery run more efficiently, can anticipate potential problems, and can fix what is wrong. Active voice may be preferable in English classes where the subject is often people doing things S-V-O.
In composing a lab report, however, passive voice may be the better choice. The difference in pressure was recorded might sound more scientific than I recorded the difference in pressure.
A radiologist writes her report in the passive voice: No abnormalities were found, rather than I found no abnormalities. In English class, we show students the difference in tone between active and passive voice. It is important to learn to think in action verbs in all subject areas. A student who is writing about the Reformation needs to focus on who did what: Martin Luther translated the Bible into the German vernacular. His translation enabled more people to read the Bible.
The action verbs tell the story. They give students a starting point when writing and a focus when reading. All subject areas use this concept; it is we English teachers who actually teach it in our grammar lessons. Myth 5: Grammar instruction is ethnocentric and prejudicial. As English teachers, we need to avoid giving the impression that we are the designated Keepers of the Language.
We can teach the etiquette of standard English without denying a student the right to his or her own dialect. An educated person has that social thermostat that linguists call codeswitching. This is not to say that standard English is better than any particular dialect. Standard English is not more expressive, more poetic, or even more accurate. It is simply the expected currency of mainstream society in formal situations. Correct: I was disappointed because I had hoped to go with you.
The present innitive to go is the correct form because the action it expresses follows the verb had hoped. Incorrect: She intended to have visited all her relatives. Did she intend to have visited or to visit? Correct: She intended to visit all her relatives. Use the perfect innitive to have written, to have seen, etc. Correct: He was happy to have seen Ralph. The speaker saw Ralph rst; then he was happy about seeing him. Therefore the perfect innitive to have seen is the proper form to use.
In participial phrases, use having with the past participle to express action before another action. Incorrect: Giving my bike to Angela, I couldnt ride to the beach later that day. The present participle giving is incorrectly used to express an action completed before the second action in the sentence. Correct: Having given my bike to Angela, I couldnt ride to the beach later that day.
Incorrect: Painting the front porch, he slept the rest of the day. Correct: Having painted the front porch, he slept the rest of the day. He had to paint the porch before he could go to sleep.
This could also be expressed by saying After painting the front porch, he slept all day. Mood Verbs can be used to express differences in the intention or mood of the speaker or writer. There are three moods in English: indicative, impera- tive, and subjunctive. Each has a specic function.
The indicative mood is used when the speaker or writer wishes to make a statement or ask a question.
He is leaving tomorrow. Does this plane y to London? The imperative mood is used for commands or requests. Call Fredericks and cancel that shipment. Please return the book to the library. Turn right at the corner, and then go left.
The subjunctive mood uses a different form of the past and present to express matters of urgency, formality, possibility, or speculation. Parts of Speech 25 Urgency: I demanded that she see me immediately. The indicative mood would use the form sees or can see for example, I want to know if she can see me immediately. Formality: He recommended that the zoning law be adopted.
The indicative mood would use is adoptedfor example, the vote is 44 to 3; the law is adopted. Possibility: If I were to sign the contract, we could not sell our own CDs.
The phrase If I were to sign expresses a future possibility. It has no reference to the past, even though were is a past tense verb form. Compare this sentence to Because I signed the contract, we could not sell our own CDs. In this sentence, the indicative mood describes an action that took place in the past.
Speculation: If he were king, he would make football the national pastime.
The subjunctive mood expresses something that is not true, a statement contrary to fact. The indicative mood, on the other hand, simply states a factfor example, If he was the king, then his brother was a prince. If the subject of a sentence performs an action, the verb is in the active voice.
If the subject receives the action, the verb is in the passive voice. Active voice: She sold a box of candy. The subject she performs the action.
Passive voice: She was sold a box of candy. The subject she receives the action.
Active voice: We have delivered the mail. The subject we performs the action. Passive voice: The mail was delivered by us. Mail is now the subject and receives the action. In general, use the active voice. Avoid weak and awkward passive verb constructions or long passages in which all the verbs are passive. The passive voice, however, does have its contribution to make. It can be used to express an action in which the actor is unknown, when a more objective or diplomatic tone is required, or when it is desirable not to dis- close the actor.
Active voice: Jim locked the front door before we left home. Passive voice: The front door had been locked before we left home. Active voice: Our sales manager made a mistake in completing your order.
Passive voice: A mistake was made in completing your order.
Active voice: We have examined your application and must decline your request for credit. Passive voice: Your application has been reviewed and at this time your request for credit must be declined.
In the nal example, the passive voice emphasizes the recipient of the action and minimizes the writers role. Using the passive voice can make the decision seem less personally directed toward the reader.
The speaker can then discuss the reasons for declining the application. Subject-Verb Agreement Just as pronouns must agree with their antecedents in person, case, and number, verbs also must agree with their subjects in person and in number.
The rst person subject is the person or persons speaking in a sentence I, we. The second person subject is the person or persons addressed you, you. The third person subject refers to the person or thing spoken about and may be any noun or third-person pronoun he, she, it, they. Agreement in Person First: I am hot. We are cold. Second: You look fantastic.
Third: The car rusts. She drives fast. They laugh a lot. Parts of Speech 27 Verbs must agree with their subjects in number. Therefore, a singular subject takes a singular verb; a plural subject takes a plural verb. Agreement in Number The window is open. The windows are open. She walks quickly. They walk quickly. I am going home. We are going home. You can come along.
All of you can come along. Special Subject-Verb Agreement Cases Compound subjects, collective nouns, and plural nouns used as titles of courses or subject areas can create confusion regarding subject-verb agree- ment. Following are guidelines for using a singular or plural verb in such cases.
Compound Subjects Joined by andSingular Verb. Use the singular verb for compound subjects joined by and 1 when the subject is consid- ered a unit research and development and 2 when both parts of the subject are modied by each or every.
The secretary and treasurer has led the minutes. The secretary and treasurer is one person. Each player and every team receives a prize for competing in the games.
Compound Subjects Joined by andPlural Verb. Except for the cases already noted, compound subjects joined by and take a plural verb. Rain and snow were falling at the same time.
Tom and Samira have resigned as coleaders. There are one book and two paintings on the oor. Are the computer and the printer compatible?