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In many countries, solid fuel use is more prevalent in rural areas Barnes and Floor However, solid fuels are still used by households in many cities for heating and cooking, as evidenced by the major contributions of biomass burning to urban particulate pollution found in previous source apportionment studies Health Effects Institute ; Pant and Harrison For the analysis presented here, which focuses on the relative contributions of emission source categories, the exact location of the emission sources is not as significant as it would be for research on individual-level human exposures.
Our objective was to systematically estimate the contribution of household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels PM2. Our estimates are based on the fraction of ambient primary combustion-derived household particulate emissions PPM2.
These calculations enabled us to estimate the burden of disease from ambient air pollution that can be attributed to household cooking PM2.
We focused specifically on household cooking with solid fuels because this is one of the air pollution risk factors included in GBD Other household sources of combustion air pollution, including household space heating, were not considered in this analysis.
We explored PM2. Methods Because most emission inventories report total residential emissions Bond et al. Non-fuel emissions associated with cooking such as volatile organic compounds created by frying are not included.
For household cooking with solid fuels from through , no technical control measures were applied in the model. We multiplied the fraction of residential PPM2.
Equation 3 shows the method by which country-level results were combined to produce regional population-weighted estimates. The underlying methodology for deriving PM2.
Fuel choices at the household level consider the full portfolio of commercial fuels as well as traditional biomass for cooking, heating, and specific use of electricity of household appliances Ekholm et al.
Data sources and models used in our analysis are summarized in Table 1.
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